Additional Resources

POPs in Articles and Phasing-Out Opportunities (Website: (December 2014)

This publication offers a broad range of Information on alternatives to POPs. Particularly, Part III(POPs-free/POPs alternatives – overview and case studies) offers categorized information on many alternatives to POPs, including PFOS, POP-PBDEs, HBCD, PCB, Endosulfan, DDT and Lindane. it also addresses POPRC consideration on identification and evaluation of  alternatives and developed guidelines and case study on unintentional POPs.

Global Chemicals Outlook II  (UNEP, 2019)

Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, mandated by the UN Environment Assembly in 2016, seeks to alert policymakers and other stakeholders to the critical role of the sound management of chemicals and waste in sustainable development. It takes stock of global trends as well as progress made and gaps in achieving the global goal to minimize the adverse impacts from chemicals and waste by 2020. In Chapter III-5, under ‘Assessment of chemical and non-chemical alternatives: focusing on solutions ', assessment of Chemical's alternatives is addressed.

Substitution of hazardous chemicals - A case study in the framework of the project 'Assessing innovation dynamics induced by environment policy (Frans Oosterhuis, 2006)

This paper addresses the impact of policies that apply the principle of chemicals substitution on innovations in industry. It finds that public policy has become a major driver for innovation in chemicals. Nevertheless, few countries apply a policy of mandatory substitution of hazardous chemicals on environmental grounds. The limited evidence available suggests that such policies do not need to be conflicting with innovativeness in the chemical industry. Several policy instruments can be applied to achieve substitution. Banning a substance while allowing exemptions (which in any case have to be granted selectively) will often be less cost-effective than a tax. But even direct regulative instruments can be cost-effective, if designed properly (e.g. obligations to meet certain emission or exposure standards or to search for alternatives). In short, the design and implementation are probably at least as important as the choice of instrument type.

Substitution of hazardous chemicals in product and processes: final report.rev1 (Hamburg, 2003)

Against this background, the study aims to identify, describe and analyse relevant activities towards substitution of hazardous chemicals. These activities include political and administrative strategies and concepts, guidance and assessment tools, as well as practical substitution “cases”.