Lindane chemical alternatives for agricultural, livestock and veterinary uses are considered efficient, technically feasible and accessible.

Note that following information is extracted from the risk management evaluation document (UNEP-POPS-POPRC.3-20-Add.4).

Available alternatives

In the United States, at least one of the following active ingredients is registered for seed treatment for corn, barley, wheat, oat, rye and sorghum: Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Permethrin and Tefluthrin. For uses on livestock, Amitraz, Carbaryl, Coumaphos, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Diazinon, Dichlorvos, Fenvalerate, Lambdacyhalothrin, Malathion, Methoxychlor, Permethrin, Phosmet, Pyrethrin, Tetrachlorvinfos, and Trichlorfon are registered. Veterinary Drugs include: Eprinomectin, Ivermectin, Doramectin, Moxidectin, and Methoprene. For pharmaceutical uses, approved treatments for head lice include: Pyrethrum/Piperonyl butoxide, Permethrin, and Malathion. Lice nit combs are also recommended for use in conjunction with these treatments. For scabies, Permethrin and Crotamiton (Eurax) are approved treatments (Annex F information provided by the United States of America, 2007).

Canadian alternatives for pharmaceutical uses of Lindane include: Permethrin (1% cream), Bioallethrin and piperonyl butoxide, Pyrethrin and piperonyl butoxide, Permethrin (5% cream), Precipitatedisulphur 6% in petrolatum and Crotamiton 10% (Eurax). Canadian registered alternatives for agricultural uses include: for canola: Acetamiprid, Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid; for corn: Clothianidin, Imidacloprid (only for field corn grown for seed) and Tefluthrin; and for sorghum: Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid. Alternatives for livestock treatments include: Carbaryl, Diazinon, Dichlorvos, Malathion, Phosmet, Tetrachlorvinphos, Trichlorfon, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Fenvalerate, Permethrin, Pyrethrin, Rotenone, Eprinomectin, Evermectin, Abamectin, Doramectin, Moxidectin and Phosmet (CEC, 2006).

Alternatives for use on canola cultivation in the Republic of Zambia include: Gaucho, Helix and Primer-Z, and for head lice treatment: Nix (Annex F information provided by the Republic of Zambia, 2007).

In Germany, alternatives against Atomaria linearis include: Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid, Imidacloprid / Tefluthrin, Clothianidin, Clothianidin / Beta-Cyfluthrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin; against Elateridae: Clothianidin, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam; against leaf-cutting insects: Lambda-Cyhalothrin, Acadirachtin, Pyrethrin / Rapsöl, Beta-Cyfluthrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin, Lambda-Cyhalothrin, Acadirachtin, Pyrethrin / Rapsöl and Methamidophos. Alternatives for use as a wood protection product include: 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), (E)-1-(2-Chloro1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitro guanidine / Clothianidin, 1-(4-(2-Chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-ptrifluorotolyloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzolyl)urea / Flufenoxuron, Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-[(1Z)2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl]-2,2-dimethyl-, (2-methyl[1,1’-biphenyl]-3-ylmethyl ester, (1R,3R)-rel- / Bifenthrin, 3-Phenoxybenzyl-2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropylether / Etofenprox, m-Phenoxybenzyl 3-(2,2dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylate / Permethrin, alpha.-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 3-(2,2dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylate / Cypermethrin, Dazomet, Thiamethoxam and 4-Bromo-2-(4chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile / Chlorfenapyr. The alternative used for public health and veterinary topical insecticide is: Infectopedicul solution (Permethrin) (Annex F information provided by Germany, 2007).

For further information, please refer to 

  • UNEP/POPS/POPRC.5/10/Add.1 – General guidance on considerations related to alternatives and substitutes for listed persistent organic pollutants and candidate chemicals
  • UNEP/POPS/COP.6/INF/4/Rev.1 – Report on a study of health sector information sources on the availability of lindane as a pharmaceutical and its alternatives as a treatment for head lice and scabies
  • Risk profile ArChEnFrRuSp (PDF)
  • Risk management evaluation ArChEnFrRuSp (PDF)